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Kidneys are one of the vital organs situated at the back of the abdomen and kept protected by lower ribs. They are bean-shaped organs on either side of the body. Their role is to filter blood to remove waste and toxins, create urine, control fluid balance within the body, and regulate the electrolyte balance. An individual can survive with one kidney. 

In some people, kidneys may get seriously damaged or diseased and not function normally.  Kidney cancer is one such case. The only solution to treat such kidney patients is to remove the damaged/diseased portion of the kidney or all of the kidney, with or without the surrounding adrenal gland and lymph nodes. The surgery done to remove the kidney is called nephrectomy. During kidney transplantation, a nephrectomy is performed on a healthy donor to provide the patient with a kidney. 

Arete Hospitals Urology Department has top-rated Urologic Surgeons in Hyderabad who are experts in performing all types of nephrectomies to treat people having kidney tumours or save the lives of kidney cancer patients.

Benefits of Nephrectomy Surgery

  • A nephrectomy can be a life-saving treatment for kidney cancer as well as other kidney injuries and diseases
  • It can preserve kidney function. Preserving a high volume of the normal kidney while reducing vascular clamp time are critical factors in maximising kidney function preservation. With normal kidney function, patients can live longer and enjoy better life quality
  • It is a surgery necessary during a kidney transplantation to remove a kidney from a donor individual. 

What is a Nephrectomy?

A nephrectomy is a major surgical procedure of removing all or part of a kidney to treat some special conditions such as cancer or non-cancerous tumours. Depending upon the unique situation of the patient, nephrectomy removes only the damaged or diseased part of one kidney, all of one kidney, or the complete kidney together with the surrounding lymph node and adrenal gland. 

Before Nephrectomy Surgery

  • Regular blood tests, urine tests, X-rays, and an ECG may be performed 1-2 weeks before the surgery to assess the patient's overall health and confirm their suitability for the surgery
  • It is necessary to fast for six hours before the procedure; patients will be informed of the time to begin fasting when the surgery is scheduled
  • Patients will be sedated with general anesthesia for the operation.

What does Nephrectomy Involve?

Nephrectomy for treating kidney cancer is performed by the best Kidney Removals Doctors in Hyderabad at Arete Hospitals using the advanced state-of-the-art technology in the best surgical settings. It starts by making the patients sleep by giving general anesthesia  and temporarily blocking any pain or suffering. 

Two types of nephrectomies can be carried out by a urologic surgeon. These include:

  • Partial Nephrectomy in Hyderabad (removing part of the kidney)- This surgical procedure removes the tumour or cancer-affected part of the kidney and a small portion of the surrounding tissue while leaving some healthy tissue in the damaged kidney. It may be advised for kidney tumours less than 7 cm in size. It is a more complex procedure than a radical nephrectomy.
  • Radical Nephrectomy in Hyderabad (removal of whole kidney)- This surgical procedure involves the removal of the entire diseased kidney, a small portion of the ureter, and the surrounding fatty tissue. The adrenal gland and any adjacent lymph nodes may also be removed. It is the most common procedure for treating significant tumours or kidney cancer. Sometimes kidney cancer spreads into the renal vein and the vena cava- the central vein that transports blood to the heart. Removing the entire tumour in a single procedure is sometimes possible, even if the disease has advanced to the vena cava.

To remove part or all of the kidney: partial or radical nephrectomy, the urologic surgeon and the Nephrectomy Specialists / Doctors in Hyderabad may use different surgical approaches depending upon the patient’s situation. The surgical method chosen for patients is determined by the size and location of the tumour, along with the patient's overall health. To learn more visit Arete Hospitals, the Best Kidney Hospital in Hyderabad.

Open Surgery 

  • This is frequently achieved through a large incision on the side of the abdomen where the damaged kidney is located.
  • In a few cases, the incision is made in the abdomen or another part of the body where the cancer has spread.
  • Before removing an infected kidney, the surgeon will close and divide the major blood vessels and tubes that lead to it.

Keyhole Surgery

  • This is also known as laparoscopic surgery or minimally invasive surgery.
  • The surgeon makes a few minor cuts in the skin before inserting a laparoscope, a tiny piece of equipment with a light and camera, into one of the incisions.
  • Using images from the laparoscope camera as a point of reference, the surgeon inserts instruments into the other cuts to remove the cancerous tissue or kidney.

Robot-Assisted Surgery

  • This type of keyhole surgery is carried out with the assistance of a robotic device.
  • The surgeon sits at a control panel and operates robotic arms that hold the surgical equipment while viewing a 3-dimensional image.
  • With the advent of robotic surgery, more partial nephrectomies can now be performed using keyhole surgery, minimising complications and shortening recovery time.

To get more information about Nephrectomy Surgery in Hyderabad, contact the experts at Arete Hospitals. They can provide you with detailed information and address any questions or concerns you may have about the procedure.

Ideal Candidates for Nephrectomy

Kidney removal is needed for a variety of reasons which are as follows:

  • Kidney cancer
  • Kidney stones that have caused severe tissue damage in the kidneys
  • Chronic infection that results in scarring and kidney function loss
  • Donor kidney removal for transplantation
  • Benign kidney conditions such as polycystic kidney disease (cluster of cysts in the kidney), symptomatic hydronephrosis (swollen kidney due to urine retention), and shrinking kidney Control of life-threatening bleeding in the event of severe kidney injuries
  • Anyone having any of the above-mentioned conditions holds candidacy for nephrectomy surgery. Besides, these patients must be healthy and committed to lead a healthy lifestyle. They must not be smokers or alcohol and drug abusers. 

After Nephrectomy Surgery

  • Patients are advised to drink some fluids following surgery
  • The IV fluids will be discontinued the next day, and patients are encouraged to increase their food intake gradually. Patients may feel sick and have slight abdominal and shoulder pain
  • A urinary catheter will be implanted to help patients pass urine more easily. The amount of urine they have passed may be measured by the nurse. After 48 hours, the wound dressing may be removed, and the patient is instructed to take short walks before progressively progressing to longer distances
  • Patients should avoid heavy lifting and drink plenty of water to pass urine regularly. They can gradually resume their everyday routines after 2–3 weeks
  • Patients will be given TED (compression) stockings, to prevent blood from accumulating in the lower extremities. They must wear these for two weeks following the procedure.

Risks Associated With Nephrectomy

All complications will be discussed with patients by the surgeon; these are uncommon but may occur in a small number of patients and can include:

  • There may be bleeding and the need for a blood transfusion due to a large number of blood vessels in the kidney
  • Damage to nearby organs is uncommon
  • Wound or urinary infection while in the hospital, which might lengthen the hospital stay, is usually treatable with antibiotics
  • Due to difficulties such as bleeding (laparoscopic method alone), the surgical procedure may have to progress to an open method to remove the kidney.
Frequently Asked Questions

1. Which patients should have partial nephrectomy rather than radical nephrectomy?

Patients who have small kidney lesions (less than 4 cm in diameter), a history of kidney failure, a prior cancer history, or a family history of kidney cancer are recommended to have partial nephrectomy. 

2. How long does it take to recover from nephrectomy surgery?

Recovery from kidney removal usually takes 3–6 weeks. Some signs and symptoms may be present. Patients may feel pain in their stomach or on the side from which the kidney was removed.

3. Can I live an everyday, healthy life following a radical nephrectomy with only one kidney?

Yes, it is safe and possible to live with one kidney. The remaining kidney frequently compensates for the function of the lost kidney, allowing patients to live an everyday, healthy life. However, a balanced lifestyle and regular medical check-ups are required to monitor kidney function.

4. Are there any alternatives to radical nephrectomy for kidney cancer?

Minimally invasive techniques like laparoscopic or robotic partial nephrectomy may be considered if the tumour is small and localised to a specific kidney location. However, radical nephrectomy remains the treatment of choice for larger tumours or when cancer has progressed outside the kidney.

For more details on the type of nephrectomy surgery and its cost, get in touch with experts at Arete Hospitals, Best Nephrectomy Hospital in Hyderabad

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