Bladder Cancer
Table of Contents

Bladder Cancer

The urinary bladder is a hollow muscular organ present in the lower pelvis. It works to store urine produced by the kidneys. The urine from the kidneys flows into the bladder through tubes called ureters. When a person urinates, the bladder muscles contract and pass the urine out of the bladder by a tube called the urethra. Together, the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, and male/female genital organs form a urinary system in humans.  

Bladder cancer is a common type of cancer resulting from an uncontrolled, abnormal growth and division of cells that make up the urinary bladder. 

Bladder cancer is best treatable when diagnosed at an early stage. But bladder cancer can even recur even after successful treatment of early-stage bladder cancer. That’s why, bladder cancer patients must go for follow-up tests for years after their treatment. 

At Arete Hospitals urology department, there are top-notch Uro-oncologists and Urologists in Hyderabad appointed who can best diagnose and treat bladder cancer of any stage. They can even take comprehensive care of patients with recurring bladder cancer. 

Benefits of Getting Bladder Cancer Treatment

  • Cancer may be less likely to recur
  • It can improve the efficacy of other medicines
  • It has fewer side effects than other medications
  • Immunotherapy may be effective when other therapies have failed
  • There is no longer the spreading of cancer
  • The cancer cell growth is slowed down
  • The cancer cells that have spread to other body parts (metastatic cancer) can get destroyed
  • It helps reduce the pain and other complications caused by the tumour.

Types of Bladder Cancer

The human body is made up of different types of cells. Based on different cell types, there are different types of bladder cancer. Bladder cancer is classified into three types:

  • Urothelial carcinoma: Earlier known by the name transitional cell carcinoma, this form of bladder cancer is most common. It takes place in the urothelial cells forming the internal lining of the bladder. Urothelial cells also make up the inside lining of the ureters, kidneys, and urethra, so cancers can form in these areas too. 
  • Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of bladder cancer develops due to long-term use of urinary catheters or persistent bladder infections that result in chronic bladder irritation. It is uncommon in Western countries but common in areas where parasites such as schistosomiasis cause disease.
  • Adenocarcinoma: This is a very rare type of bladder cancer that develops in the cells of the mucus-secreting glands in the bladder.

Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

People with extensive haematuria (enough blood in the urine to be visible) are frequently diagnosed with bladder cancer. Other anomalies in the body can also cause specific symptoms of bladder cancer. 

Here are the most typical symptoms of bladder cancer:

  • Excessive back pain on one side only
  • Frequent urge to urinate but inability to urinate
  • Urinary frequency during the night
  • Uncontrollable urination
  • Burning feeling or severe discomfort during urination
  • Urine with blood or apparent blood clots.

If you're experiencing symptoms like blood in urine, frequent urination, or pain, see a Bladder Tumour Treatment Doctor in Hyderabad. They conduct tests like cystoscopy, imaging, and biopsies to diagnose the tumour or cancer and plan treatment to treat the concern effectively.

Causes and Risk Factors of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer develops when there are sudden changes (mutations) in the DNA of the bladder cells. DNA contains information or instructions that tell cells how to multiply, divide and function. The DNA alterations in the cells cause them to rapidly multiply and continue to live while healthy cells die. The abnormal cells of the bladder form tumours that eventually destroy the healthy cells in normal bladder tissue and spread (metastasize) throughout the body.

The following are some well-known risk factors for bladder cancer:

  • Smoking cigarettes causes harmful, cancer-causing chemicals present in smoke to build up in the urine. As the bladder stores urine, these chemicals can damage the bladder lining and increase one’s risk of bladder cancer.  
  • People who are old, particularly those aged above 55 are more likely to develop bladder cancer. 
  • A man, particularly a white man is at high risk of developing bladder cancer. 
  • Certain chemical exposure is linked to a high risk of bladder cancer. These include chemicals present in dyes, rubber, leather, textiles, and paints.
  • Chronic bladder tissue irritation or inflammation- This can be due to long-term use of urinary catheters or a parasitic infection called schistosomiasis. 
  • A low fluid intake and a high-fat diet
  • History of bladder cancer in the family
  • Radiation poisoning
  • Infection with parasites
  • Previous Cytoxan treatment during chemotherapy
  • Previous cases of pelvic radiation therapy.

Diagnosis of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer can be diagnosed in a variety of ways, including:

  • Physical examination- The urologist puts gloved fingers into the rectum to feel for tumours.
  • Tissue biopsy- The urologist passes a special surgical tool through a scope into the bladder to collect tissue samples for further laboratory testing for cancer.  
  • Cystoscopy- In this diagnostic procedure, the urologist inserts a cystoscope- a small, narrow tube fitted with a camera and light, through the urethra into the bladder. It helps examine the inside of the bladder for signs of cancer.
  • Medical imaging tests- These include a CT urogram or retrograde pyelogram to get a detailed view of the inside of the bladder. During CT urogram, a contrast dye is intravenously administered to flow into the urinary tract and create images of its structures. In retrograde pyelograms, an X-ray is used to capture images. 
  • Urine cytology- This test involves an examination of a urine sample under a microscope to check for cancer cells. 

To determine the extent of bladder cancer or cancer spread, additional tests are ordered by the urologist. These include CT scan, PET scan, MRI scan, Chest X-ray, and Bone scan. Under a microscope, cancer cells are viewed to determine the grade of bladder cancer.

Bladder Cancer Treatment in Hyderabad

The treatment method will vary depending on the grade, stage, and type of bladder cancer, the patient's overall health, and their symptoms.

Treatment for Stages 0 and 1

Some medications that trigger the immune system to fight cancerous cells (immunotherapy), can benefit at this point. Chemotherapy or surgery may be performed to destroy cancer cells and remove malignant tumours from the bladder.

Treatment for Stages 2 and 3

The first option is chemotherapy. It can be performed intravesically (only in the bladder) or systemically (throughout the body). Another option is removing a portion of the bladder by radical cystectomy or the complete bladder. Surgery may be performed to provide a new pathway for urine to flow out.

The remaining cancer cells are destroyed using various methods, and any major surgery is performed to prevent cancer from recurring.

Treatment for Stage 4

Patients are given clinical trial medicines and chemotherapy before having surgery. It will alleviate the symptoms and make life easier. Surgery helps eliminate cancer cells. 

Alternatives include creating a new urine excretion pathway, removal of the surrounding lymph nodes, and radical cystectomy. Immunotherapy, radiation treatment, and chemotherapy are performed to kill the residual cancer cells.

For more details consult Best Doctors for Urinary Bladder Cancer Treatment in Hyderabad at Arete Hospitals.

Frequently Asked Questions

1. Is it possible to cure bladder cancer?

Some superficial and non-muscle-invasive bladder cancers can be treated with surgery and other treatments. Bladder tumours that have spread to the muscle can sometimes be cured.

However, many people with their first cancer effectively treated can develop another bladder or urinary tract malignancy. This could be the consequence of the original cancer returning (recurrence) or a separate bladder cancer unrelated to the first. For more details on Urinary Bladder Cancer Treatment in Hyderabad, schedule a visit with the experts at Arete Hospitals.

2. Can bladder cancer be prevented?

It is not possible to completely prevent bladder cancer. For people having a genetic predisposition for cancer by age, race, or family history, prevention isn’t possible. However, there are certain things people can do to lessen their chances of getting it. These include not smoking and staying away from cancer-causing chemicals or toxins in the workplace. One should also drink enough fluids and eat plenty of fruits and vegetables to keep the immune system healthy for fighting cancer. 

3. What is the cost of bladder cancer treatment?

The cost of treating bladder cancer in Hyderabad varies widely based on factors like stage, treatment type, and location of cancer. Expenses typically encompass diagnostics, surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, medications, and follow-up care. Hospitalisation and supportive services can add to the finances. Health insurance coverage plays a critical role in managing expenses, but bladder cancer treatment can be financially significant for patients and their families.

Visit now at Arete Hospitals, one of the best Bladder Cancer Treatment Hospitals in Hyderabad. It has state-of-the-art technology, experts like onco-surgeons, and urologists, and infrastructure to treat medical issues.

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